Temporal measures of reduced /sC/-clusters in toddler speech: Evidence for a detailed lexical specification
Cluster reduction is a common phenomenon in toddlers’ productions. The question in this paper is how toddlers store target complex onsets in their mental lexicon: are cluster reductions the result of an incomplete lexical specification? We focus on cluster reductions in /sC/-onsets, like in [li:p] for ‘sleep’. By means of a detailed acoustic analysis we compare toddlers’ productions of target /sC/-onsets that have been phonetically transcribed as reduced to a single consonant, to their productions of similar target words with a singleton consonant. The main finding in this study is that in the acoustic signal of reduced productions of target /sC/-onsets there is a temporal trace of the ‘deleted’ segment, providing evidence for a covert contrast between words with complex- and simple onsets. Toddlers’ lexical representations of /sC/-onsets thus appear to be complete.
A salient characteristic of both child language and aphasia is that target segments are often produced unfaithfully. In this study of corpora of child language and aphasic language, we show that these substitution patterns are not random; we also show to what degree both groups perform alike, and where differences occur.
Background. The Regression Hypothesis (Jakobson 1941/1963) states that language attrition in aphasic patients mirrors stages of language acquisition in children. It has been shown that this claim has to be rejected on the segmental level. For the present study, we focus on the sub-segmental substitution patterns of aphasics and children, thus allowing for the investigation of a more nuanced version of the Regression Hypothesis.
Methodology. For each subject group, every segment in the consonant inventory of Dutch (e.g. Booij 1995) was compared with all of its actual realizations. This was done separately for onset and coda positions of monosyllabic words, to begin with. This yielded target-actual confusion matrices that were subsequently analyzed to determine the relative error frequency as a function of feature-based phonemic distance. Phonemic distance was measured using the PMV metric (e.g. Bailey & Hahn 2005). The contribution to the relative error frequency of each of the three dimensions (Place of Articulation, Manner of Articulation, Voice) was subsequently measured for both positions and each group.
Results. All groups show a non-random pattern of segment-for-segment substitutions. In most cases, the relative error frequency shows a decline for increasing phonological distance. A comparison between the younger and older children reveals that the latter perform better over all. Furthermore, for both child groups, there is an important difference between single dimensional errors, i.e. errors of only PoA, MoA or Voice, and errors that involve multiple dimensions, in that the latter occur far less often. The aphasic patients pattern with the older children, but show less sensitivity to phonological distance.
Conclusions. The data reveal that neither aphasics, nor children at various developmental stages show random substitutions. Our results resemble findings by White & Morgan (2008), who showed gradient sensitivity of infants to increasing degrees of mispronunciations in perception studies. So, although the Regression Hypothesis is too strong when considered at the segmental level, new and interesting results can be found in the sub-segmental domain.
Pronominal terms of address in Dutch: new insights from seventeenth-century letters
Venue: Lipsius 148
The history of the Dutch terms of address has been a topic of a long linguistic debate. Many of the articles published in the 20th century focused on the origin of various personal pronouns, leaving the use of these pronouns somewhat underexposed (Van den Toorn 1977: 525). For the seventeenth century, however, Van Leuvensteijn (2002) examined the terms of address in the correspondence of the patrician Maria van Reigersberch. On the basis of the Letters as Loot-corpus we can take this research one step further and examine how terms of address were used by various ranks of the seventeenth-century society in the West of the Dutch Republic, rather than by one individual from the upper class. In this presentation I will show how the general terms of address for the singular (gij, jij, and u) on the one hand, and the epistolary terms (U.L. and U.E.) on the other are distributed across social class and sex. The influence of the relationship between sender and addressee on the terms of address used will be examined too.